Morocco has a population of over A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Morocco annexed the territory inleading to a guerrilla war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. They also paid taxes and tribute to the new Muslim administration. After the death of al-Mansur, the country was divided among his sons. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilising their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy.
Morocco was the first nation to recognise the fledgling United States as an independent nation in Le Petit JournalNovember 13 As Europe industrialised, North Africa was increasingly prized for its potential for colonisation. France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early asnot only to protect the border of its Algerian territory, but also because of the strategic position of Morocco on two oceans.
Ina dispute over Spain's Ceuta enclave led Spain to declare war. Victorious Spain won a further enclave and an enlarged Ceuta in the settlement.
InSpain created a protectorate in the coastal areas of Morocco. InFrance and Spain carved out zones of influence in Morocco. Spain continued to operate its coastal protectorate. Tens of thousands of colonists entered Morocco. Some bought up large amounts of the rich agricultural land, others organised the exploitation and modernisation of mines and harbours.
Interest groups that formed among these elements continually pressured France to increase its control over Morocco a control which was also made necessary by the continuous wars among Moroccan tribes, part of which had taken sides with the French since the beginning of the conquest. Tangier 's population included 40, Muslims, 31, Europeans and 15, Jews. The rebellion was eventually suppressed by French and Spanish troops. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement.
France allowed Mohammed V to return inand the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year. In March the French protectorate was ended and Morocco regained its independence from France as the "Kingdom of Morocco". Sultan Mohammed became king in However, Hassan declared a state of emergency and suspended parliament in Inthere was a failed attempt to depose the king and establish a republic.
A truth commission set up in to investigate human rights abuses during his reign confirmed nearly 10, cases, ranging from death in detention to forced exile. Some people were recorded killed during Hassan's rule according to the truth commission. Somecivilians were reported as being involved in the " Green March ".
A month later, Spain agreed to leave the Spanish Sahara, soon to become Western Sahara, and to transfer it to joint Moroccan-Mauritanian control, despite the objections and threats of military intervention by Algeria.Hassan was considered by pious Muslims to be a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad Ahl al-Bayt. As king, Hassan tried to democratize the Moroccan political system by introducing a new constitution that provided for a popularly elected legislature while maintaining a strong executive branch headed by the king.
From to he exercised authoritarian rule in order to contain opposition to his regime, but he restored limited parliamentary government under a new constitution in and instituted some socioeconomic reforms following attempted coups in, and Western Sahara was in fact divided between Morocco and Mauritaniabut this victory proved to be hollow, since guerrillas of the Polisario Front, agitating for Saharan independence, tied down Moroccan troops and prevented the exploitation of the phosphate deposits that had made the Sahara desirable to Morocco in the first place.
Despite criticisms concerning human rights abuses, Hassan was generally credited with having adroitly maintained the fragile unity of Morocco. He held on to his authority when several other Arab states were toppled by fundamentalist Islamic revolutionaries. In foreign affairs he cultivated markedly closer relations with the United States and the West than his father had. The United States especially valued his ability to mediate between conflicting parties in the Middle East.
Many Moroccan Jews immigrated to Israel after the war, and Hassan claimed that this population formed a bridge between Arabs and Israelis. By the early s Hassan had accepted the existence of the state of Israel and moved to the forefront of peace negotiations in the Middle East. Hassan II. Article Media. Info Print Cite.
Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Hassan II king of Morocco. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Bendjedid and King Hassan II of Morocco met to discuss a possible resolution for the Western Sahara issue in Mayand diplomatic relations were restored the following year.
Friction reemerged, however, notably in when Hassan stated that it would have been better if the FIS had…. He became known particularly for advancing efforts to help the poor.
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King Mohammed VI tolerated the rise of an Islamist party partly in response to the same kind of demands for reform that have swept North Africa. The Justice and Development Party PJDwhich has been the leading Islamist party sincewon the right to form a government after winning 27 percent of the vote in the November parliamentary elections.
It is a politically moderate but socially conservative party. Members of the politically moderate Islamist party gained control of important ministries, including the ministries of higher education, justice, and foreign affairs. The main Islamist opposition in Morocco is Justice and Charity, a grassroots movement founded in by Sheikh Abdessalam Yassin, a charismatic leader and member of a Sufi order. Unlike the PJD, Justice and Charity refuses to participate in the political system under conditions it considers illegitimate.
It also rejects the dual authority of the king as both head of state and as commander of the faithful, or Amir al Mouminin. Justice and Charity has, in turn, been banned from politics. The rise of the Justice and Development Party is significant for three reasons. First, the formation of an Islamist government in was only the second time since independence in that the monarchy allowed an alternation of power.
The king also agreed to reforms that give him less control over government—notably, choosing the prime minister from the party with the largest number of seats in parliament. Yet beyond symbolic gestures, the prospects of significant political change under the new government are realistically close to nil. Moroccan Islamists clearly benefited from protests and pressure unleashed by the February 20 movement, a Moroccan version of the Arab protest movements.
Subsequent constitutional amendments gave the government more powers. The PJD was basically domesticated by the palace before it was first allowed to participate in local and legislative elections in Inthe monarchy played a behind-the-scenes role in identifying—and vetoing—cabinet members for sensitive posts.
Before the new government was even formed, the king hired key figures from the previous cabinet as counselors, who will have significant executive power and influence.
ДЛЯ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕНИЯ, ЧТО ВЫ СТАРШЕ 18-ТИ, ПОЖАЛУЙСТА, АВТОРИЗИРУЙТЕСЬ ЧЕРЕЗ ВК
Finally, the Justice and Development Party has not made a clear commitment to modern universal principles to qualify as the Muslim democratic force it claims to be.
Bythe PJD had made little progress pushing forward its political agenda. A series of setbacks — including the loss of its secular coalition partner in parliament and the ouster of Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi — forced the party to give priority to retaining power over mobilizing reforms. The PJD took the route of moderation and co-optation.
Born inAbdelilah Benkirane was a member of Muslim Youths Chabiba al Islamiyaa radical clandestine movement established in In the late s and early s, the government launched a dual strategy of repression and co-optation of Islamist militants.
Benkirane broke with the banned Muslim Youths in ; he then took small steps to reassure the security apparatus in exchange for help integrating loose Islamist groups into the legal associations. First, a civil war consumed neighboring Algeria after the military canceled elections that Islamists were poised to sweep in InBenkirane was allowed to establish Reform and Renewal al Islah wa Tajdida group that conspicuously dropped the name of Islam even though it was an Islamic association.
The new movement provided the social and religious backbone of the future political party. The PJD, officially formed inwas the product of a gradual and lengthy process of negotiations among fragmented Islamic groups and compromises with authorities. Some of those groups sought to influence state policies from within; others worked to reform society from below. But both accepted the principle of working within the confines of a pluralist autocracy.
Unlike the PJD, the MUR has to respond to poor, urban, and middle-class constituencies that link endemic state corruption and social injustice to moral decay.Royal pardons received by 4, detainees as the king announces launch of new committee to tackle social inequalities. On the eve of the royal anniversary on Tuesday, an official statement announced that 4, people were pardoned, including some arrested during the months of protests in the long-marginalised northern Rif region.
The al-Hirak al-Shaabi, or "Popular Movement", was sparked by the death of a fisherman but soon spiralled into demands for more development and action against corruption and unemployment.
Happy birthday King Mohammed VI of Morocco: 10 facts about the royal
More than protesters are thought to have been arrested and tried in connection with the demonstrations, but no official figures are available. About were previously pardoned. Monday's royal pardon also includes some prisoners convicted of "terrorism" as part of the fourth annual reconciliation programme, according to Morocco World News. Another 2, prisoners had their sentences reduced while 31 detainees had their death penalty sentences commuted to life imprisonment.
On Monday night, the king also announced the launch, later this year, of a committee charged with creating a new development model to tackle social inequalities, and called for a government reshuffle for "new blood" because the country's development policy is not doing enough to meet citizens' needs.
The king said he wants "people with a different mentality and officials who are capable of raising performance levels. In a speech at his palace in the northern city of Tetouan, the year-old monarch, who succeeded his father Hassan II inwelcomed progress in infrastructure projects and civil liberties in the country, but said the efforts had not had "sufficient impact". The king enumerated some key achievements of his rule, with emphasis on the building of highways, a high-speed railway, ports, renewable energy projects and urban development.
The committee will serve as an advisory body to make suggestions to improve reforms in fields such as education, health, agriculture, investment and taxation. Special emphasis was also placed on the need to open up the economy to foreign investors and revamp the public sector.
Morocco has largely been insulated from the turmoil that hit North Africa and the Middle East since the Arab Spring uprisings ofalthough it regularly sees protests over economic and social problems.
The monarchy, under pressure from protesters, in a constitutional referendum delegated some of its powers to an elected government.
Mohammed VI of Morocco
But the king retains overall authority as head of state, chief of the military, and the country's top Islamic authority, as well as tight control over key sectors of the economy. Toggle navigation. Moroccan king pardons thousands, including 'Hirak' protesters Royal pardons received by 4, detainees as the king announces launch of new committee to tackle social inequalities.
The programme was launched in to reintegrate prisoners into society. Government reshuffle On Monday night, the king also announced the launch, later this year, of a committee charged with creating a new development model to tackle social inequalities, and called for a government reshuffle for "new blood" because the country's development policy is not doing enough to meet citizens' needs.
Morocco Middle East Africa.
Have your say. Give us feedback. Sign up for our Newsletter.He is a member of the Alaouite dynasty and ascended to the throne on 23 July upon the death of his father, King Hassan II. The New York Times reported that prior to ascending to the throne, Mohammed "gained a reputation as a playboy during the years he spent waiting in the wings, showing a fondness for fast cars and nightclubs.
On 23 JulyMohammed succeeded his father as king, being enthroned in Rabat on 30 July. Shortly after he took the throne, Mohammed addressed his nation via television, promising to take on poverty and corruption, while creating jobs and improving Morocco's human rights record. Mohammed's reformist rhetoric was opposed by Islamist conservatives, and some of his reforms angered fundamentalists. In Februaryhe enacted a new family code, or Mudawanawhich granted women more power.
This move was welcomed by many as promoting democracybut was also criticized because reports of human rights violations could not name the perpetrators. According to human rights organisations, widespread abuses still exist in Morocco. In Decemberthe whistleblowing website WikiLeaks published diplomatic cables which alleged high-level corruption involving the king himself.
In a speech delivered on 9 Marchhe said that parliament would receive "new powers that enable it to discharge its representative, legislative, and regulatory mission". In addition, the powers of the judiciary were granted greater independence from the King, who announced that he was impaneling a committee of legal scholars to produce a draft constitution by June The reforms consisted of the following: .
In JanuaryMorocco banned the manufacturing, marketing and sale of the burqa. The legitimacy of the king was contested in with the 20 February Movement that attempted to undermine the functioning of the monarchic system. Protests broke out in Rabat, the capital of Morocco, on 2 Augustafter Mohammed pardoned 48 jailed Spaniards, including a pedophile who had been serving a year sentence for raping 11 children aged between 4 and He has since revoked the pardon, after popular outrage.
Mohammed is Morocco's leading businessman and banker. SNI and ONA both owned stakes in Brasseries du Marocthe largest alcoholic beverages manufacturer and distributor of brands such as Heineken in the country.
Mohammed is also a leading agricultural producer and land owner in Morocco, where agriculture is exempted from taxes. Royal involvement in business is a major topic in Morocco but public discussion of it is sensitive. The US embassy in Rabat reported to Washington in a leaked cable that "corruption is prevalent at all levels of Moroccan society".
Decisions on big investments in the kingdom were taken by only three people, the documents quote a company executive linked to the royal family as saying. The three are the king, his secretary Mounir Majidiand the monarch's close friend, adviser and former classmate Fouad Ali Himmathe executive said at a meeting with potential investors in a Gulf country. This corruption especially affects the housing sector, the WikiLeaks documents show.
The New York Times noted "conflicting reports about whether the new monarch had been married on Friday night, within hours of his father's death [in ] Princess Lalla Salma in Rabat. Bennani was granted the personal title of Princess with the title of Her Royal Highness on her marriage.
Mohammed's birthday on 21 August is a public holiday although festivities were cancelled upon the death of his aunt in When he is executing his duty as head of the Royal Moroccan Armed Forceshe is generally referred to as the "Commander-in-Chief.
Mohammed has received numerous honours and decorations from various countries, some of which are listed below. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the Ottoman monarch, see Mehmed VI. This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page.Land area:sq misq km ; total area:sq misq km. Current government officials. Languages: Arabic officialBerber dialects, French often used for business, government, and diplomacy. National Holiday: Throne Day, July Real growth rate: 5.
Unemployment: 9. Agriculture: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock. Labor force: Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism. Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt. Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 1.
Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 Radios: 6. Television broadcast stations: 35 plus 66 repeaters Televisions: 3. Internet users: 6. Transportation: Railways: total: 1, km Highways: total: 57, km; paved: 32, km includes km of expressways ; unpaved: 24, km Airports: 60 International disputes: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since Septemberbut attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected other proposals; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco also rejected Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands in to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction; Morocco allowed Spanish fishermen to fish temporarily off the coast of Western Sahara after an oil spill soiled Spanish fishing grounds.
Major sources and definitions. Morocco, about one-tenth larger than California, lies across the Strait of Gibraltar on the Mediterranean and looks out on the Atlantic from the northwest shoulder of Africa.
Algeria is to the east and Mauritania to the south. On the Atlantic coast there is a fertile plain. The Mediterranean coast is mountainous. The Atlas Mountains, running northeastward from the south to the Algerian frontier, average 11, ft 3, m in elevation. Morocco has been the home of the Berbers since the second millennium B. The Arabs invaded circabringing Islam. The Berbers joined them in invading Spain inbut then they revolted against the Arabs, resenting their secondary status. InBerbers took control of large areas of Moorish Spain until they were expelled in the 13th century.
The land was rarely unified and was usually ruled by small tribal states. Conflicts between Berbers and Arabs were chronic. Portugal and Spain began invading Morocco, which helped to unify the land in defense. InMorocco came under the control of the Alawite dynasty.
It is a sherif dynasty—descended from the prophet Muhammad—and rules Morocco to this day. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Morocco was one of the Barbary States, the headquarters of pirates who pillaged Mediterranean traders. European powers showed interest in colonizing the country beginning inand there were frequent clashes with the French and Spanish.
Finally, inFrance and Spain concluded a secret agreement that divided Morocco into zones of French and Spanish influence, with France controlling almost all of Morocco and Spain controlling the small southwest portion, which became known as Spanish Sahara.The Pornhub team is always updating and adding more porn videos every day. We have a huge free DVD selection that you can download or stream. Pornhub is the most complete and revolutionary porn tube site.
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